Request PDF on ResearchGate | Determinación de la concentración de fosfatos en los colirios antiglaucomatosos comercializados en España | Objectives: To. Quitosana para liberação de fármacos antiglaucomatosos / Juçara. Ribeiro Franca. .. Figura 10 – Inserts oftálmicos para liberação prolongada de fármacos: (a). Categoría de Productos, Antialérgicos, Antibióticos, Antibióticos con Esteroides, Antiglaucomatosos, Antiinflamatorios Esteroides, Antiinflamatorios no.

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This way, the average volume of each droplet was determined by the ratio between the mass of 1.

Farmacos Oftalmologicos by Naldo Jimenez on Prezi

Both safety and vision recovery time were similar in both groups. The average number of drops per vial was determined by dividing the volume announced by the manufacturer for the presentation of bigger content by the average volume of each drop, also antiglaucomqtosos the difference of the number of droplets formed per vial according to the tilt. Noecker and Simmons 18,19 consider that although generic product manufacturers comply with all FDA standards, the response of individual patients to a given medicine is unknown.

Local or topical action medicines A local or topical action medicine is a product which is applied locally and assumed to act on the site where it is administered. The significantly lower heart rate was caused by reduced systemic absorption, and hence lower serum timolol concentration statistically significant with timolol gellan.

Are generics and brand-name medicines the same?*

The official medical eyedropper, according to antiglaucomstosos American Pharmacopoeia, presents an outter diameter of 3 mm and dispenses oftalnicos drops of distilled water per mL at a temperature of 25oC by positioning the eyedropper perpendicular to the person that will receive the drop 1.

Local action medicines include dermatological products such as creams and ointmentsinhaled products, eye and ear drops, nasal products and products administered to the oral, vaginal or rectal cavities with a local effect. Later, the mass of 1. The authors compared the magnitude of IOP decrease at the end of the first period and found a statistically significant different between both study groups.

Cantor 20 considers that when switching oftalmico a generic medicine, neither the patient not the physician can be sure that the new medicine will be well tolerated or effective. Although both treatments caused reductions in oftalmcos and exercise heart rate, timolol gellan was associated with significantly lower reductions. He concludes that concerns about generic medications will only disappear when comparative studies with original antiglaucomattosos are promoted and conducted for efficacy, safety and patient comfort.

This is not to say patients should not use generic drugs, but we must monitor the effects to ensure our patients are getting the cost savings they expect without sacrificing efficacy or creating side effects and tolerability issues. FDA criteria for determining clinical efficacy in these medicines vary according to the pharmacological group and are based on parameters or measures used to establish the efficacy of the innovator drug.


A randomized, crossover, open label pilot study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xalatan in comparison with generic Latanoprost Latoprost antiglaucomtaosos subjects with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

No differences in excipient composition are accepted. Te average number of droplets contained in each vial was also determined, taking into account the average volume of each drop and the total volume of the vial anttiglaucomatosos advertised by the manufacturer on the product label Clinical differences between generic and brand-name anti-inflammatory ophthalmic medications. The antuglaucomatosos consider that substituting an original medicine for a generic medicine could be a trial and error process However, 8 hours after instillation the IOP was The mean number of drops in each bottle was determined and a pharmacoeconomic evaluation of the drops was made.

Corneal complications associated with tropical ophthalmic use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. For antiglsucomatosos drops, nasal sprays and cutaneous solutions, bioequivalence is accepted if the drug is in the same oftalmicow aqueous or oily and contains the same active ingredient concentration as the reference product.

Bearing in mind that an active ingredient is in balance between systemic circulation and the site of action, it is assumed that drug values in blood represent drug bioavailability.

.: Portal da SBO – Sociedade Brasileira de Oftalmologia :.

Another factor that influences the volume of the drop is the slope of the dropper vial. None of the eyedrop vials studied showed droplets ideal to the human eye, leading to product waste and increased cost to the manufacturer and the consumer. If it causes discomfort or adverse effects, patients stop using the medicine and often do not report this until the following check up.

Why do generics manufacturers not copy the original medicine exactly? However, it is worth considering that each product has its particularities and individual characteristics that may lead to a need for greater or lesser frequency of application.

The importance of excipients Tabla 1. Once the adjustment of the stopper to calibrate smaller droplets is a costly process, an immediate action to minimize the cost would be properly guide the consumers in a descriptive and illustrative way in the directions of which would be the best way of applying each eyedrop. Systemic effects, if any, should be considered as side effects. When patients ask about replacing a branded product with its generic counterpart, all we can honestly say as doctors is that the new generic medicine has not been studied, analysed or compared to the original medicine, and so we cannot know whether it will act in a similar way — in other words, whether both medicines are equally effective.

The origin of particulate matter is unknown and could result from contaminants, active ingredient precipitates or container material.

The method and form of administration should be similar to the approved product. According to the shape of the tip of the stopper and the surface tension of the liquid, there is a tendency of each vial producing a bigger or smaller drop when tilted than when it is inverted at 90o. The US Food and Drugs Administration FDA 1 requires that study medicines contain the same active and inactive ingredients at the same concentration as the reference product. A total of 30 patients were included.


Suspensions, gels, emulsions and eye ointments, unlike solutions, can change significantly according to the manufacturing process spraying, particle size distribution or mixing ordereven though active and inactive components are quantitatively and qualitatively the same. The results show that there is a trickle pattern between the different vials studied, since the volume of the droplets ranged from DT, dorzolamida-timolol; LT, latanoprost.

Revista Brasileira de Oftalmologia. One problem with the generic drug suspension manufactured by Sabex Pharmaceutical Quebec is that it would require at least 70 shakes to obtain an homogenous suspension In the absence of comparative studies between the brand-name and the generic medication, FDA classified the generic formulation of the timolol maleate gel forming solution Falcon Laboratories as ABalthough the products are formulated with different slow-release gel vehicles.

Mammo ZN et al. It is not known whether particulate matter can have clinical repercussions on the ocular surface with normal use. Minor differences in excipient composition are accepted whenever pharmaceutical properties of the study medicine and the reference medicine are identical or essentially similar.

Some surfactant preservatives also contribute antiglacuomatosos keeping lipophilic drugs in solution, such as prostaglandin analogues. Among these, are changes in suspension homogeneity, occlusion of the eye drop bottle tip and significantly lower concentration of the active ingredient in each drop. All medications, both brand-name and generic, showed a reduction in active ingredient concentration and BAK when exposed to temperatures above those in the information leaflet.

The change from baseline in resting heart rate was However, with the sign reversed, the bigger the drop the smaller number of droplets contained in vials will be, increasing the final cost to the oftalmicis.

Table 2 presents the results of the mass of 10 drops and 1 milliliter drop volume, the volume of the droplet formed, the volume of the largest presentation found in market for each brand, and the wholesale price of the antiiglaucomatosos analyzed under different tilt angles of the bottle during application. For proper tilt, a protractor was used as a guide in a reference plane, and in relation to the vial base 3,6.

The 5th Oftalimcos of the Brazilian Pharmacopeia published in is the Official Pharmaceutical Code followed in Brazil, and sets the standards and specifications of pharmaceutical, medications and other products subject to sanitary surveillance. Bioavailability is assessed using pharmacokinetic parameters, including: