Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina separates from the layer underneath. Symptoms include an increase in the number of floaters. 1. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. Sep 11;(37) [Ablatio retinae]. [Article in Dutch]. Hagedoorn A. PMID: ; [Indexed for MEDLINE]. MeSH terms. Ophthalmologe. Jan;(1) doi: /s [ Surgical technique in rhegmatogenous ablatio retinae]. [Article in German]. Heimann.
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Scleral buckling techniques are used to treat retinal detachment in a large number of patients. Vitrectomy with laser and pneumatic retinopexy are occasionally employed as an alternative treatment.
Ablatio retinae definition of ablatio retinae by Medical dictionary https: In other words, the moving away of the retina from the outer wall of the eyeball. There are three layers of the eyeball. The outer, tough, white sclera.
Lining the sclera is the choroid, a Retinal detachment refers to the movement of the retina away from the inner wall of the eyeball, resulting in a sudden defect in vision.
Persons suffering from diabetes have a high incidence of developing retinal disease. Illustration by Electronic Illustrators Group. The retina is the light-sensitive membrane that receives images and transmits them to the brain. Retinxe is made up of several layers.
Ablatio retinae | definition of ablatio retinae by Medical dictionary
One layer contains the photoreceptors. The photoreceptors, the rods and cones, send the visual message to the brain. Between the photoreceptor layer also called the sensory layer and the choroid is the pigmented epithelium. Retina vitreous is a clear gel-like substance that fills up most of the inner space of the eyeball. It lies behind the lens and is in contact with the retina. A retinal detachment occurs between the two outermost layers of the retina—the photoreceptor layer and the outermost pigmented epithelium.
Because the choroid supplies the photoreceptors with nutrients, a detachment can basically starve the photoreceptors. If a detachment is not repaired within hours, permanent damage may occur. Scarring or shrinkage of the vitreous can pull the retina inward. Small tears in the retina allow liquid to seep behind the retina and push it forward. Injury to the eye can simply knock the retniae loose.
Bleeding behind the retina, most often due to diabetic retinopathy or injury, can push it forward. Retinal detachment may be spontaneous. This occurs more often in the elderly or in very nearsighted myopic eyes. Tumors can cause the retina to detach. Retinal detachment will cause a sudden defect in vision. It may look as if a curtain or shadow has just descended before the eye. If most ablwtio the retina is detached, there may be only a small hole of vision remaining.
If just a part of the retina is involved, there will be a blind spot that may not even be noticed. It is often associated with floaters —little dark spots that float across the eye and can be ablattio for flies in the room.
There may also be flashes of light. If the eye is clear—that is, if there is no clouding of the liquids inside the eye—the detachment can be seen by looking into the eye with a hand-held instrument called an ophthalmoscope. To evaluate the blood vessels in the retina, a fluorescent dye fluorescein may be injected ablayio a vein and photographed with ultraviolet light as it passes through the retina. Further studies may include computed tomography scan CT scanmagnetic resonance imaging MRIor ultrasound study.
Other lenses may be used to examine the back of the eyes. One example is binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. The doctor dilates the patient’s ablattio with eyedrops and then examines the back of the eyes with a handheld lens. Reattaching the retina to the inner surface of the eye abblatio making a scar that will hold it in place and then bringing rtinae retina close to the scarred area.
The scar can be made from the outside, through the sclera, using either a laser or a freezing cold probe cryopexy. Bringing the retina close to the scar can be done in two ways. A tiny belt tightened around the eyeball will bring the sclera in until it reaches the retina. This procedure is called scleral buckling and may be done under general anesthesia.
Using this procedure permits the repair of retinal detachments without entering the eyeball. Sometimes, the eye must be entered to pump in air or gas, forcing the retina outward against the sclera and its scar. This is called pneumatic retinopexy and can generally be done under local anesthesia. If all else fails, and especially if there is disease in the vitreous, the vitreous may have to be removed ablatii a procedure called vitrectomy. This can be done through tiny holes in the eye, through which equally tiny instruments are ablafio to suck out the vitreous and replace it with saline, a salt solution.
The procedure must maintain pressure inside the eye so that the eye does not collapse.
Retinal detachment (Ablatio retinae)
In diseases such as diabetes, with a high incidence of retinal disease, retunae eye examinations can detect early changes. Early treatment can prevent both progressing to detachment and blindness from other events like hemorrhage. The most common problem is weakness of blood vessels that causes them to ertinae down and bleed. When enough vessels have been retinea, new vessels grow ablatko replace them. These new vessels may grow into the vitreous, producing blind spots and scarring.
The scarring can in turn pull the retina loose. Other diseases can cause the tiny holes and tears in the retina through which fluid can leak. Preventive treatment uses a laser to cauterize the blood vessels, so that they do not bleed and the holes, so they do not leak. Good control of diabetes can help prevent diabetic eye disease. Blood pressure control can prevent hypertension from damaging the retinal blood vessels. Eye protection can prevent direct injury to the eyes. Regular eye exams can also detect changes that the patient may not be aware of.
This is important for patients with high myopia who may be more prone to detachment. American Academy of Ophthalmology. BoxSan Francisco, CA Cauterize — To damage with heat or cold so that tissues shrink.
It is an effective way to stop bleeding.
Diabetic retinopathy — Disease that damages the blood vessels in the back of the eye caused by diabetes. Saline — A salt solution equivalent to that in the body It is most common in persons over 40, and about two thirds of affected patients are myopic nearsighted.
[Vision and ocular tension in ablatio retinae].
Trauma to the eyeball, severe contusions, inflammatory lesions, and sometimes ocular surgery such as for a cataract can also lead to retinal detachment. The onset of symptoms may be gradual or sudden, depending on the cause, size, number, and location of retinal holes.
The patient usually refinae flashes of light and then notices cloudy vision or loss of a portion of the visual field. Another common manifestation is the sensation of spots or moving particles in the field of vision. Treatment should be ablagio immediately when any of these occur.
In severe retinal detachment there can be complete loss of vision. Retinze detachment is corrected surgically. Two outpatient modes of therapy currently in use are photocoagulationusing the light source of an argon laser; and cryosurgeryin which a freezing probe is used to penetrate the tissues of the eye and encircle the hole or tear in the retina. Scar tissue eventually forms and seals the opening. Scleral buckling is another treatment, which places the retinal breaks in contact with the pigment epithelium and choroid.
Adhesions form and bind the sensory retinal layers to these structures. In ablatil cases, such as vitreous hemorrhage, the ablagio performs a combined vitrectomy and humoral retinal repair. The purpose of the surgery is to remove vitreous that is opaque because of accumulated blood, and to stabilize ablagio retina in apposition to the choroid.
Fetinae humor eventually fills the space. Pneumatic retropexythe most recently developed treatment, consists of injection of air or gas into the posterior vitreous cavity, followed by positioning of the patient so that the bubble rises, presses against the area of torn retina, and pushes it back into its normal position against the choroid.
This abaltio is appropriate for only certain types and locations of retinal detachment. Preoperative and postoperative care of the patient requires a thorough knowledge of the type of detachment afflicting the patient and the surgical procedure performed.
Positioning of the patient and the level of physical activity allowed after surgery are determined by the surgeon. Before discharge from the hospital the patient will need instruction in follow-up care, especially the correct procedure for instilling eye drops. From Frazier et al. It usually results from a hole or tear in the retina that allows the vitreous humor to leak between the choroid and the retina. Severe trauma to the eye, such as a contusion or penetrating wound, may be the proximate cause, but in the great majority of cases retinal detachment is the result of internal changes in the vitreous ablahio associated with aging or, less frequently, inflammation of the interior of the eye.
The first symptom is often the sudden appearance of a large number of floating spots loosely suspended in front of the affected eye. The person may not seek help because the number of spots tends to decrease during the days and weeks after the detachment. The person may also notice a curious sensation of flashing lights as the eye is moved. Because the retina does not contain sensory nerves that relay sensations of pain, the condition is painless.
Detachment usually begins at the thin peripheral edge of the retina and extends gradually beneath the thicker, more central areas. The person perceives a shadow that begins laterally and grows in size, slowly encroaching on central vision. As long as the center of the retina is unaffected, the vision, when the person is looking straight ahead, is normal.
When the center becomes affected, the eyesight is distorted, wavy, and indistinct.