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Political influence by selling nations allegedly plays a role in Turkish defence acquisition.

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There are very few examples of the prosecution of defence personnel. Inan unplanned increase of the secret service expenditure reportedly occurred, most likely in connection with the war in Syria.

While an anti-corruption agency does not exist in Turkey, several institutions possess an anti-corruption mandate. A classified document or information can be kept concealed for up to 50 years. According to them, while operations against corruption and smuggling do make it into the newspapers from time to time, sanctioning, particularly at high levels, has not been continued effectively in recent years.

Are there effective measures in place to discourage facilitation payments which are illegal in almost all countries?

While article 18 of Law No. The Undersecretariat appoints other personnel. While the precedence for the involvement of civil society organisations CSO exists for anti-corruption discourse in general, it does not, however, for the issue of defence and security.

It also makes profit from rents collected from property and facilities, partnership protocols, returns on bank deposits, and profits from commercial fairs. There does not appear to be any policy to disclose all defence purchases, although they are made public through a number of channels. Accessed April 22 Both experts interviewed stated that there are no legal provisions in place by the government to restrict the use of agents and no evidence to this effect could be found.

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No evidence could be found that regulations or practices, which would facilitate such an evaluation, are in place.

SSDF’s income and expenditures can be monitored as bulk sums from its activity reports.

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For example since Turkey has only one credible aerospace company TAI it is out of the question that it must compete with local or foreign rivals for aerospace programmes it typically automatically wins without competition. There is typically little justification for a purchase. Recent Transformations and Needs for Reform Istanbul: Items classified as secret are not subject to the law and are not made public.

A mid-score is thus awarded. A procurement cancellation of the military tender for the national warship kanu MilGem in early exemplifies this lack of active mechanisms in the face of unfair competition. Is there effective and transparent external auditing of military defence expenditure?

Since the judges that carry out their duties, are appointed within a hierarchical structure and are audited by an inspection board connected to the Ministry of National Defence, the independence of their prosecution is questionable. Law on Public Officials Steven A.

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Is special attention paid to the selection, time in post, and oversight of personnel in sensitive positions, including officials and personnel in defence procurement, contracting, financial management, and commercial management? The oversight of the military from these institutions is limited due to it reportedly being subject only to cursory oversight by the institution of the Ombudsman and the Court of Auditors. However, as stated by interviewee 1, no details can be obtained on the contracts details, since the contract holds information with regard to the company and is therefore treated with confidentiality.

The findings of OECD’s phase 3 report from on the implementation of the convention in Turkey indicated no significant developments, although some progress appears to be made to address foreign bribery. This Index is the first global analysis of corruption risk in defence establishments worldwide. The statements by interviewee 2 and the cited sources support the conclusion that the process is largely ineffective, including insufficiency in the transparency of the process and a lack of parliamentary scrutiny.

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Several journalists have become unemployed as a result of this pressure. Sources added and comments above adjusted. At intervals, reports in the media are found in which small bribes and facilitation payments are uncovered. Are personnel promoted through an objective, meritocratic process? Recording of such expenditure is incomplete at best and the score has been selected accordingly. Accessed April 24, at: However, its auditing mechanisms have been rendered overall ineffective in recent years and the publication of auditing reports to the public is restricted.

There is no evidence that the government communicates or participates in public debate on issues of defence. He was stripped of his title of admiral and imprisoned for one year.

Further discussion ensues on newspaper columns, editorials, radio shows, and etc. The Undersecretariat for Defence Industries SSM is responsible for large defence procurement programmes and decides on the ideal modality of the procurement in every individual case.

It was aimed at preventing kanyn, enforcing sanctions on the corrupt and raising kaunn of corruption. The extra-budgetary fund of the Undersecretariat of Defence Industry, the Turkish Armed Forces Foundation and its companies, and OYAK the Armed Forces Trust and Pension Fundhave other sources of revenue and do not include interests in businesses related to natural resource exploitation.

The Turkish Statistics Institute also published an official report which revealed the level of arms exports to Syria, another confirmation, despite the government’s denial.

Although the document has been leaked and is discussed in part, syl de-facto secret nature does not allow for a public debate on equal terms.