The Land Code of (Arazi Kanunnamesi) was the first milestone in the movement toward legalization of private land ownership. It was preceded by the Tapu. The Ottoman Imperial Land Code, which was promulgated on 6 June , was ve Tarihyazimi: Osmanli Arazi Kanunnamesi’ne Yönelik Yaklaçimlar’. sarsan asıl dönüşümlerin tohumları Tanzimat Fermanı ve tarihli Arazi Kanunname- Bu gerekçeyle Arazi Kanunnamesi’nin birinci maddesi Osmanlı .

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Tax exemptions offered villages for performing public services such as road building were abolished; new state agencies would perform these services. New Perspectives on Turkey, Although a great deal of research remains to be done, these divergent consequences of the Land Code mitigate against drawing any overly generalized conclusions about its results. Kanunnamdsi landlords took possession of vast tracts of land, still mostly unoccupied or unclaimed.

I the au tio held i Ista ul he increased the down payment to 71, piasters and apparently let officials in the Treasury know that the property in question had been confiscated while under the possession of his father. Home Humanities Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps Land Code of The extent of mulk or allodial lands privately owned property in Palestine was limited, and was usually only found in the old cities or in garden areas.

The Ottoman Land Code of Turkish, Arazi Kanunnamesi was an extension of the Tanzimat reforms to the areas of agricultural property araxi taxation. While initially tax farms were granted for limited periods of time, in a further development, they were granted for life, and even became inheritable. But this supremacy was short-lived, and bySultan Mahmud II had reestablished the dominant position of the central state.

In a report on madrabs in Diyarbekir, it appears that the term, beyond the definition of irrigated lands devoted to the rice cultivation, has acquired the meaning of water resources and canals made on water springs irrigating not only rice lands but also lands in the immediate vicinity.

The petitions penned by the Zirki emirs indicate that the relation the emirs established with their possessions were beyond the dichotomy of state-owned and freehold property, the conventional classification according to the Ottoman landholding practices. Frontiers of State in the Late Ottoman Empire: This measure was not designed to prevent absentee ownership; indeed, the code specifically stated that legal ownership of land took precedence over actual occupation and cultivation.


Inas a measure of reform, the Mandate Government of Palestine began to apply an Ordinance for the “Commutation of Tithes,” this tax in effect being a fixed aggregate amount paid annually. Arazi Memluke lands were properties that were owned by private individuals that were collected through conquest, state endowment, or inheritance.

Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Basing his account on those of the contemporary British statesmen, van Bruinessenargues that the Code benefited only a small elite, while it apparently intended the actual tillers of the soil to become its legal possessors, and contained clauses preventing corrupt practices.

Ottoman Land Code of – Wikipedia

In the aftermath of the implementation of the Land Code ofthe family estates, which had been close — if not identical — kajunnamesi freehold property in the early nineteenth century, were restored to their original status as private property in a modern sense. As strong leaders of their districts, at least a faction of the Zirki emirs manipulated the reform process in their favour. Ina ministry of agriculture was established to stimulate arazl production.

Criticising the political and economic visions associated with the Land Code, Mundy and Smithargues that the law mediated 1885 changes that are simultaneously political and economic. The Ottoman land law classifies land under five kinds or categories. More recent scholarship has contested this view, arguing that the consequences of the Land Code differed from region to region in the empire kanunna,esi that peasants were willing to participate in and benefit from the new system.

This occurred because peasants depended on local notables for protection; because peasants were afraid that registration of land would be followed by conscription or increased tax burdens; because peasant indebtedness to moneylenders led to forfeiture of deeds to land; because peasants were too ignorant to comprehend land registration; or because bedouin shaykhs used their authority within the tribe to usurp all the land of their tribesmen.

Rural land in this category was rare. Small-scale landholding aside, this paper argues that the Code led atazi the emergence of large landowners.


Similarly, in Anatolia large estates were formed on wasteland, often located kaninnamesi swampy plains and in the Kurds’ tribal lands to the east. Rather, the result of the implementation of the Code depended on the power relations among emirs, tribal leaders, and tribe members.


Governing Property, Making the Modern State: Particularly, they were maintained, administered, and eventually sold to private parties in their original statuses. It was founded on traditional land practices and included categories of land cited in Islamic law. Arazi Mirie lands were state owned properties that the Ottoman sultan could bestow to loyal subjects, viziersand military commanders these lands were kept through payments to the Ottoman Empire.

Ruli g the Periphery, Governing the Land: Crops were assessed on the threshing floor or in the field and the tithe was collected from the cultivators. This was followed by the land emancipation act.


Miri land was owned by the state; the actual cultivators of the land were essentially tenants of the state, although they were entitled to pass on the right of cultivation to their heirs. While the lands in question were tax farmed to provincial governors of Kurdistan BOA.

Polk and Richard L. The Making of Iraq, Even though the Ottoman state confiscated the lands in question and reverted to the state-owned property, it was constantly challenged by the emirs arazj the counter-claims of kanujnamesi. The ayan did not challenge the state’s claim to ownership of land, but they did prevent the state from collecting taxes, enhancing their own power. In Syriapowerful local families had obtained malikane grants and ruled almost unchecked from the eighteenth century.

In accordance with the post period, the same madrabs demonstrate the scope of sphere adazi private property delineated by the Ottoman government. In Mesopotamia now IraqOttoman governors, seeking the cooperation of tribal shaykhs, permitted them to register tribal lands as their personal property, creating large estates.